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Appendix B: How the hardship scales were created and coded

Connectivity scale coding

Three items were used to create the persistent connectivity hardship scale. Two questions were asked of mobile users (owners and sharers), and one question was asked of non-users. If an individual’s response on any item related to connectivity was coded as hardship, the individual was considered to have a persistent connectivity issue.

ASKED ONLY OF MOBILE USERS (OWNERS AND SHARERS)

Q21b. How often do you have problems getting a reliable mobile connection?

  • Frequently [coded as connectivity hardship = yes (1)]
  • Occasionally / rarely / never / don’t know / refused [coded as connectivity hardship = no (0)]

Q21d. How often do you have trouble finding a place to charge your mobile phone’s battery?

  • Frequently [coded as connectivity hardship = yes (1)]
  • Occasionally / rarely / never / don’t know / refused [coded as connectivity hardship = no (0)]
ASKED ONLY OF NON-MOBILE USERS

Q27d. There is no mobile phone service where you live – is this a reason why you do not currently have a mobile phone, or not?

Response options:

  • Yes, this is a reason [coded as connectivity hardship = yes (1)]
  • No, this is not a reason / don’t know / refused [coded as connectivity hardship = no (0)]

Financial scale coding

Six items were used to create the persistent financial hardship scale. One question was asked of all respondents. Two questions were asked of mobile users (owners and sharers), one question was asked of only mobile sharers and two questions were asked of non-users. If an individual’s response to any item related to finances was coded as a hardship, that individual was considered to have a persistent financial issue.

ASKED OF ALL RESPONDENTS

Q49d. Have there been times during the last year when you did not have enough money to buy mobile data – yes or no?

Response options:

  • Yes [coded as financial hardship = yes (1)]
  • No / does not apply to me / don’t know / refused [coded as financial hardship = no (0)]
ASKED ONLY OF MOBILE USERS (OWNERS AND SHARERS)

Q21a. How often do you have trouble paying for your mobile phone usage?

Response options:

  • Frequently [coded as financial hardship = yes (1)]
  • Occasionally / rarely / never / don’t know / refused [coded as financial hardship = no (0)]

Q21f. How often do you avoid doing things you want to do on your mobile phone because those things use too much mobile data?

Response options:

  • Frequently [coded as financial hardship = yes (1)]
  • Occasionally / rarely / never / don’t know / refused [coded as financial hardship = no (0)]
ASKED ONLY OF MOBILE SHARERS

Q6. Please tell me the primary reason why you share a mobile phone, rather than owning your own.

Response options:

  • Can’t afford one [coded as financial hardship = yes (1)]
  • Don’t need to use one regularly [coded as financial hardship = no (0)]
  • Think it’s too complicated to use [coded as financial hardship = no (0)]
  • Not allowed to have your own [coded as financial hardship = no (0)]
  • Don’t like using mobile phones [coded as financial hardship = no (0)]
  • Your phone was lost/broken/stolen [coded as financial hardship = no (0)]
  • Afraid your phone will be stolen [coded as financial hardship = no (0)]
  • Other reason [coded as financial hardship = no (0)]
  • Don’t know [coded as financial hardship = no (0)]
  • Refused [coded as financial hardship = no (0)]
ASKED ONLY OF NON-MOBILE USERS

Q27a. The cost of data is too expensive – is this a reason why you do not currently have a mobile phone, or not?

Response options:

  • Yes, this is a reason [coded as financial hardship = yes (1)]
  • No, this is not a reason / don’t know / refused [coded as financial hardship = no (0)]

Q27b. The cost of a mobile device is too high – is this a reason why you do not currently have a mobile phone, or not?

Response options:

  • Yes, this is a reason [coded as financial hardship = yes (1)]
  • No, this is not a reason / don’t know / refused [coded as financial hardship = no (0)]

Language scale coding

Three items were used to create the persistent language hardship scale. One question was asked of mobile users (owners and sharers), and two questions were asked of non-users. If an individual’s response on any item related to language was coded as hardship, they were considered to have a persistent language issue.

ASKED ONLY OF MOBILE USERS (OWNERS AND SHARERS)

Q21e. How often is the information you want or need online not available in your preferred language?

Response options:

  • Frequently [coded as language hardship = yes (1)]
  • Occasionally / rarely / never / don’t know / refused [coded as language hardship = no (0)]
ASKED ONLY OF NON-MOBILE USERS

Q27c. You can’t read well enough to use a mobile phone – is this a reason why you do not currently have a mobile phone, or not?

Response options:

  • Yes, this is a reason [coded as language hardship = yes (1)]
  • No, this is not a reason / don’t know / refused [coded as language hardship = no (0)]

Q27j. There are no apps or websites available in your language – is this a reason why you do not currently have a mobile phone, or not?

Response options:

  • Yes, this is a reason [coded as language hardship = yes (1)]
  • No, this is not a reason / don’t know / refused [coded as language hardship = no (0)]

Security scale coding

Five items were used to create the persistent security hardship scale. One question was asked of all participants. Two questions were asked of mobile sharers, and two questions were asked of non-users. If an individual’s response on any item related to security was coded as hardship, that individual was considered to have a persistent security concern/issue.

ASKED OF ALL PARTICIPANTS

Q19a. Do you think people should be concerned about identity theft or not? [IF CONCERNED] And is that very concerned or only somewhat concerned?

Response options:

  • Very concerned [coded as security hardship = yes (1)]
  • Only somewhat concerned [coded as security hardship = no (0)]
  • Not concerned [coded as security hardship = no (0)]
  • Don’t know [coded as security hardship = no (0)]
  • Refused [coded as security hardship = no (0)]
ASKED ONLY OF MOBILE SHARERS

Q6. Please tell me the primary reason why you share a mobile phone, rather than owning your own.

Response options:

  • Your phone was lost/broken/stolen [coded as security hardship = yes (1)]
  • Afraid your phone will be stolen [coded as security hardship = yes (1)]
  • Don’t need to use one regularly [coded as security hardship = no (0)]
  • Can’t afford one [coded as security hardship = no (0)]
  • Think it’s too complicated to use [coded as security hardship = no (0)]
  • Not allowed to have your own [coded as security hardship = no (0)]
  • Don’t like using mobile phones [coded as security hardship = no (0)]
  • Other reason [coded as security hardship = no (0)]
  • Don’t know [coded as security hardship = no (0)]
  • Refused [coded as security hardship = no (0)]
ASKED ONLY OF NON-MOBILE USERS

Q27g. You are worried it might get stolen – is this a reason why you do not currently have a mobile phone, or not?

Response options:

  • Yes, this is a reason [coded as security hardship = yes (1)]
  • No, this is not a reason / don’t know / refused [coded as security hardship = no (0)]

Q27h. You are worried about the security of your information – is this a reason why you do not currently have a mobile phone, or not?

Response options:

  • Yes, this is a reason [coded as security hardship = yes (1)]
  • No, this is not a reason / don’t know / refused [coded as security hardship = no (0)]

Total number of hardships scale coding

To assess how many total hardships mobile users faced, each mobile user received a score between zero (no hardship responses) and seven (all hardship responses) based on the number of hardship responses they gave for the items asked of mobile users (including the two items asked of all participants).

Count of hardship responses for questions: Q19a, Q21a, Q21b, Q21d, Q21e, Q21f and Q49d.


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